A road roller is a compactor type vehicle used to compact soil, gravel, concrete, or asphalt in the construction of roads and foundations. The first road rollers were horse-drawn.

Since the effectiveness of a roller depends to a large extent on its weight, self-powered vehicles replaced horse-drawn rollers from the mid-19th century. The first such vehicles were steam rollers. The double cylinder or compound steam rollers became popular from around 1910 onwards and were used mainly for the rolling of hot-laid surfaces. In Britain steam rollers remained in use until the early 1970s.

As internal combustion engine technology improved petrol and diesel powered rollers gradually replaced steam rollers.